Introduction (A Brief History of Assessment)
Psychological assessments are an important and integral part of the psychiatric care. Psychological assessment garden information from a client in an effort to determine their mental framework. Through the process of interviewing we can gain insight to the clients family history such as: mental disorder (schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, autism, bipolar disorder and much more). In addition we can discover the environment in which the client grew up (emotional, economical, and social) defines reliability, we can look at the symptoms a patient is facing on a recurring basis (crying spells, sleeplessness, fear of abandonment, thoughts of self harm, highs and lows, and impulsive behavior). While conducting an interview the psychologist can conduct basic observation of the client for visual symptoms. During an assessment a client may go through a Norm-Referenced Test to determine how the client is align with their peers in the fields of academia. IQ test may also be used to determine critical thinking, reasoning, and patterns (“About Bipolar l Disorder | VRAYLAR® (cariprazine),” n.d.).Psychological assessment are nothing new to mankind they have been in question since the days of Aristoles through questions of introversion and extroversion (Shields, 2008). In more modern times Dr. Williams James was considered the father of Psychological studies in North American Psychology, his main focus was the study how the mine truly function as. Dr. Raymon Cattell established 16-PF psychological testing using factor analysis. Through his research he was able to generate assessment that allow psychologist to determine personality factors (Dias, 2018). As we lead into the 20th century Psychological test are used to collect a sample of the client’s behavior. Each test question needs to be in relation to what is being tested. A Psychologist will conduct an initial screening in the early stages of treatment with the client. They will then Assessments 2 request an assessment and evaluation, followed by a diagnosis, and treatment planning. However, all psychological testing requires reliability, correlation, causation, and validity. Without these defining points an assessment can not be complete nor correct.
Reliability is a major factor in the field of psychological testing. Overall reliability is the term deemed for consistency in testing through research. Reliability can be broken down into a few categories: Internal, External, Split half method, test retest, and inter-rater. Internal is a method in which a measurement is equal to itself. External is where the measurement varies from one to another. Split half measures the extent to which all parts of the test contribute equally to what is bing measured. It is often used to assess the frequency of a psychometric test. Test retest gauges stability of a test over time. In this method an individual will take a test then with in the following two weeks will take the same exact test. Inter- rater looks at the different views for consistent projections of the same behavior (Mcleod, n.d.). In this method multiple individual will observe and compare observation afterward. If the results are consistent with each other than the data is reliable. Errors can develop out of two primary factors the first being the development of testing materials which is referred to as systemic errors that are inadvertently built into the test. The other errors comes from administration of the test to the client. This is referred as unsystematic errors. Errors in the creation of psychological testing results from confusing, ambiguous, or poorly worded questions. In addition questions that fail to meet the desired hypothesis pose immense problems in gauging a probable outcome when not target properly. Administration errors are the results of poor environmental setting given by examiner. From poorly instructing the test taker on the test taking standards and actions to setting time limits on a test that has nothing to do with timed activities (Mote, 2010).
Correlation is the concept of finding a relationship between two or more variables. Correlation, positive or negative has depicted outcomes that can be elusive until later in life (“Correlation, causation, and association – What does it all mean???,” n.d.). An example of this would be a teenager who works had at their education and achieves a high GPA will likely Achieve a higher salary when they enter the workforce (“Understanding Correlations,” 2013).
Causation is the establishment of change from one gauged variable that directly impacts another. There are varying degrees in which this can be depicted. An example of this would be a client suffering from BorderLine Personality Disorder has symptoms such as: Risky Behavior (adventurous or intimate), Severe anger outburst, Fear of abandonment, Poor self identity, Rapid mood shifts, and Emptiness will result in poor sustainable relationship issue. In this example the personality disorder, the client has directly “causes” relationship failures of their own doing. This represent the causation between variables (“Correlation, causation, and association – What does it all mean???,” n.d.).
Validity is the ability in which a measurement is stable and accurately reflect to the real world. In psychology validity in cohorts with testing, in which a tester hypothesis is established by evidence from interpretations of test cohorts. There are a few types of validity in psychology: Face Validity, Construct Validity, Criterion-Related Validity, Formative Validity,and Sampling Validity. Face validity ascertains the reviews and gauges the intended construct ,this is the focal point. A major factor in this type of validity is the motivation of the stakeholders involve. Construct Validity is used to measure the intended measurement at hand without involvement in other variables. A group of experts would look at the subjective and determine if this method of validity is obtainable. Criter ion-Related Validity is used to foresee present or potential performance. It is used to create a connection if plausible to another criterion. Sampling Validity looks at vast range of areas under its label. The use of sampling is to look at brief point associated with the subject to make an objective determination (“Reliability and Validity,” n.d.).
Correlation, causation, and association – What does it all mean??? (n.d.). Retrieved September 22, 2019, from Psychology Today website: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/all-about-addiction/201003/correlation-causation-and-association-what-does-it-all-mean
Mote, T. (2010, February 2). Factors Affecting Reliability in Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 22, 2019, from LIVESTRONG.COM website: https://www.livestrong.com/article/78523-factors-affecting-reliability-psychological-tests/